Research

Economic impacts of the 2020 oil market crash 5/21/2020

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE 2020 OIL MARKET CRASH

Payne Fellow Brad Handler and Director Morgan Bazilian write about how the upstream oil and gas industry risks losing more than 200,000 jobs over the next six to 12 months—comparable to the 2015–2016 oil market downturn—and appears poised to shrink over the longer term, as well. This may challenge states and local communities that have significant upstream exposure and suggests they focus on making their economies more resilient.  May 21, 2020. 

AGGREGATION AND ANALYSIS OF METHANE DATA IN THE DJ BASIN, COLORADO 5/5/2020

AGGREGATION AND ANALYSIS OF METHANE DATA IN THE DJ BASIN, COLORADO

Payne Institute Fellow Dorit Hammerling and Payne Research Associate William Daniels consider emissions data in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin. They focus on methane data from the TROPOMI instrument on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. They have aggregated the data into a variety of temporal packets and performed an initial exploratory analysis. This review will help inform ongoing and future air pollution monitoring efforts. These efforts rely on data gathered from a wide array of monitoring techniques, including ground-level sensors, drones, and planes. Being able to better incorporate satellite data into these efforts will offer a more complete emissions profile, which can be used to inform both operations and regulations. May 5, 2020.

WORLD TOUR OF COVID-19 IMPACTS ON NIGHTTIME LIGHTS 4/21/2020

WORLD TOUR OF COVID-19 IMPACTS ON NIGHTTIME LIGHTS

The Payne Institute’s Earth Observation Group has been watching the nighttime lights dim, and recently recover, across the world since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a good proxy fr both electricity demand and economic activity. The disruption patterns of the Corona virus shutdowns have been recorded by the NASA / NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day /night band (DNB). To examine this is detail, the EOG calculated changes in the brightness between monthly cloud‐free average radiance composites. The results are detailed in this paper. April 21, 2020.

PROVINCIAL, FEDERAL, AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY DRIVERS OF POSSIBLE STRANDED ASSETS IN ALBERTA, CANADA March 30, 2020

PROVINCIAL, FEDERAL, AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY DRIVERS OF POSSIBLE STRANDED ASSETS IN ALBERTA, CANADA

The Alberta oil sands are vast deposits of crude bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay located on the Treaty 6 and 8 lands of the Cree, Dene, and Métis First Nations. The oil sands sector represents 10% of Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions.  This analysis will adopt the theoretical lens of economic geography, which emphasizes the importance of multiscalar inquiry in understanding economic phenomena. Concerning the impacts caused by regulatory drivers of stranded assets, jurisdictional scale matters.   March 30, 2020.

THESE IMAGES SHOW THE IMPACT OF CORONAVIRUS ON ELECTRICITY DEMAND IN CHINESE CITIES March 25, 2020

THESE IMAGES SHOW THE IMPACT OF CORONAVIRUS ON ELECTRICITY DEMAND IN CHINESE CITIES

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease it causes (COVID-19) have caused significant disruptions to markets around the world since the virus was first identified in Wuhan City in China in late 2019.  In the energy sector, the impact has been most apparent in the dramatic fall in oil demand in China.  The Payne Institute’s Earth Observation Group is using satellite images to view the decrease in electricity usage in key Chinese cities due to COVID-19.  March 25, 2020.

PAYNE INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY – ENERGY RESEARCHER POSITION AVAILABLE March 25, 2020

PAYNE INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY – ENERGY RESEARCHER POSITION AVAILABLE

Energy Researcher sought for full-time position at the Payne Institute for Public Policy at the Colorado School of Mines.  The research will focus on multi-dimensional aspects of energy and development. Analyzing the energy industry’s dual challenge of reducing environmental impacts while also satisfying increasing demand from emerging economies, and how this affects markets, trade, security, geopolitics, and technology development. The successful applicant will also provide mentorship to graduate and undergraduate students on the project; maintaining an accepting work environment; and assisting with research group communications.  March 25, 2020.

REVIEWING THE MATERIAL AND METAL SECURITY OF LOW-CARBON ENERGY TRANSITIONS March 4, 2020

REVIEWING THE MATERIAL AND METAL SECURITY OF LOW-CARBON ENERGY TRANSITIONS  

The global transition to a low-carbon economy will involve changes in material markets and supply chains on a hitherto unknown scale and scope. With these changes come numerous challenges and opportunities related to supply chain security and sustainability. To help support decision-making as well as future research, this study employs a problem-oriented perspective while reviewing academic publications, technical reports, legal documents, and published industry data to highlight the increasingly interconnected nature of material needs and geopolitical change. The paper considers a broad set of issues including technologies, material supplies, investment strategies, communal concerns, innovations, modeling considerations, and policy trends to help contextualize policy decisions and regulatory responses. March 4, 2020. 

CONSIDERING NON-POWER GENERATION USES OF COAL IN THE UNITED STATES March 2, 2020

CONSIDERING NON-POWER GENERATION USES OF COAL IN THE UNITED STATES 

The economics of alternatives to coal combustion, coupled with concerns about coal’s significant role in climate change emissions and air pollution, have put intense downward pressure on coal markets, especially in the United States. As coal power generation in much of the world is declining (China being the largest exception), there is renewed interest in how to sustainably, and effectively, use coal without combusting it. A non-exhaustive review of various possible uses for coal across the chemical and material sectors, is provided. March 2, 2020. 

THE GEOPOLITICS OF RENEWABLES: NEW BOARD, NEW GAME February 10, 2020

THE GEOPOLITICS OF RENEWABLES: NEW BOARD, NEW GAME

This policy perspective sums up the main input of four members of the Research Panel for IRENA’s Global Commission on the Geopolitics of the Energy Transformation. The geographic and technical characteristics of renewable energy systems are fundamentally different from those of coal, oil, and natural gas. This has implications for interstate energy relations and will require early attention if states are to exploit opportunities and address challenges. We point to six clusters of renewables’ geopolitical implications that will manifest themselves over different time horizons. Overall, a generally positive disruption is foreseen, but also one that raises new energy security challenges. February 10, 2020.

FRACKING CONTROVERSIES: ENHANCING PUBLIC TRUST IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT THROUGH ENERGY JUSTICE February 10, 2020

FRACKING CONTROVERSIES: ENHANCING PUBLIC TRUST IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT THROUGH ENERGY JUSTICE

Payne Faculty Fellow Jessica Smith co-authors a paper on Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) that are a policy tool for local governments to gain more control over unconventional oil and gas development. MOUs ideally empower local governments to minimize potential risks by negotiating more stringent best management practices directly with the operators, who benefit from a more stable regulatory landscape. This study investigates the energy justice dimensions of these MOUs as they were negotiated in the midst of community conflicts in Colorado.  February 10, 2020.

PARTISANSHIP AND PROXIMITY PREDICT OPPOSITION TO FRACKING IN COLORADO February 7, 2020

PARTISANSHIP AND PROXIMITY PREDICT OPPOSITION TO FRACKING IN COLORADO

Oil and gas development has grown rapidly in recent years in the United States, generating substantial debate over its risks and benefits. A large body of research has surveyed individuals living in and around producing regions to evaluate their views on the industry, with somewhat mixed results. Here, we present the first detailed analysis on this topic using real-world voting data, drawing from precinct-level results of a 2018 election in Colorado that included a vote on Proposition 112, which would have set very large setback requirements on new oil and gas activity. February 7, 2020.

SUPPORTING ELECTRIFICATION POLICY IN FRAGILE STATES: A CONFLICT-ADJUSTED GEOSPACIAL LEAST COST APPROACH FOR AFGHANISTAN January 21, 2020

SUPPORTING ELECTRIFICATION POLICY IN FRAGILE STATES: A CONFLICT-ADJUSTED GEOSPACIAL LEAST COST APPROACH FOR AFGHANISTAN

Roughly two billion people live in areas that regularly suffer from conflict, violence, and instability. Infrastructure development in those areas is very difficult to implement and fund. As an example, electrification systems face major challenges such as ensuring the security of the workforce or reliability of power supply. This paper presents electrification results from an explorative methodology, where the costs and risks of conflict are explicitly considered in a geo-spatial, least cost electrification model. We also identify inflection points, quantify key decision parameters, and present policy recommendations for universal electrification of Afghanistan by 2030. January 21, 2020.

BIG DATA AND THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES January 14, 2020

BIG DATA AND THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

A number of “disruptive” data science and sensor technologies are creating new opportunities for addressing global challenges. The emergence of abundant computing power made possible the generation and storage of “big data,” enabled the explosion of sensors and networked devices, and powered major breakthroughs in the application of Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning techniques. These developments have led to a new trend best described as the seamless interplay between the physical and the digital world—also known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) (Deloitte, 2015). This has paved the way for potential radical transformation of whole sectors and industries across the globe. January 14, 2020.

THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ACHIEVING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS January 13, 2020

THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ACHIEVING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Payne Institute Fellow Francesco Fuso-Nerini writes on the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and its progressively wider impact on many sectors requires an assessment of its effect on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Using a consensus-based expert elicitation process, we find that AI can enable the accomplishment of 134 targets across all the goals, but it may also inhibit 59 targets. January 13, 2020.

SUSTAINABLE MINERALS AND METALS FOR A LOW-CARBON FUTURE January 3, 2020

SUSTAINABLE MINERALS AND METALS FOR A LOW-CARBON FUTURE

Climate change mitigation will create new natural resource and supply chain opportunities and dilemmas, because substantial amounts of raw materials will be required to build new low-carbon energy devices and infrastructure. The global low-carbon revolution could be at risk unless new international agreements and governance mechanisms are put in place to ensure a sustainable supply of rare minerals and metals, a new academic study has warned.  January 3, 2020.

ATYPICAL VARIABILITY IN TMY-BASED POWER SYSTEMS December 16, 2019

ATYPICAL VARIABILITY IN TMY-BASED POWER SYSTEMS 

This paper presents the results of an analysis that explores how Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) informed power system models perform when exposed to atypical variability. A simplified power system planning model is tested for two case studies in Guinea-Bissau and Turkey. A TMY proxy is compared against 24-year timeseries datasets containing hourly resolution solar PV and wind capacity factor data.  December 16, 2019.

Reversible solid oxide cell systems for integration with natural gas pipeline and carbon capture infrastructure for grid energy management November 28, 2019

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELL SYSTEMS FOR INTEGRATION WITH NATURAL GAS PIPELINE AND CARBON CAPTURE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR GRID ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Payne Fellow Robert Braun writes about how Electrical energy storage (EES) is necessary to enable greater penetration of renewables and as a grid-balancing solution, but current EES technologies suffer from capacity or geological limitations and high cost. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) are an electrochemical energy conversion technology that can produce both electricity from fuel (gas-to-power) and fuel from electricity (power-to-gas), depending on resource availability and demand. This study proposes a ReSOC system integrated with both natural gas pipeline and carbon capture and storage (CCS) infrastructure to render a flexible, grid energy management resource.November 28, 2019.

COMMITTED EMISSIONS AND THE RISK OF STRANDED ASSETS FROM POWER PLANTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN November 5, 2019

COMMITTED EMISSIONS AND THE RISK OF STRANDED ASSETS FROM POWER PLANTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

In this paper, we assess committed CO2 emissions from existing and planned power plants in LAC. Those are the carbon emissions that would result from the operation of fossil-fueled power plants during their typical lifetime. November 5, 2019.
Committed emissions and the risk of stranded assets from power plants in Latin America and the Caribbean
Las emisiones comprometidas y el riesgo de activos abandonados en el sector eléctrico de América Latina y el Caribe

ECONOMIC VOLATILITY IN OIL PRODUCING REGIONS: IMPACTS AND FEDERAL POLICY OPTIONS October 30, 2019

ECONOMIC VOLATILITY IN OIL PRODUCING REGIONS: IMPACTS AND FEDERAL POLICY OPTIONS

This report is an outcome from the Payne Institute/Columbia|SIPA/Resources for the Future event held earlier this year. The report analyzes the impact of “large, rapid, and unpredictable changes in local economic conditions” due to changes in the oil industry and offers guidance for how the federal government could support these communities. October 30, 2019.

THE GEGALO INDEX: GEOPOLITICAL GAINS AND LOSSES AFTER ENERGY TRANSITION October 15, 2019

THE GEGALO INDEX: GEOPOLITICAL GAINS AND LOSSES AFTER ENERGY TRANSITION

This article presents the GeGaLo index of geopolitical gains and losses that 156 countries may experience after a full-scale transition to renewable energy. The following indicators are considered for inclusion in the index: fossil fuel production, fossil fuel reserves, renewable energy resources, governance, and conflict. October 15, 2019.

THE EVOLVING ROLES AND STRUCTURES OF UNIVERSITY-AFFILIATED ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTES September 26, 2019

THE EVOLVING ROLES AND STRUCTURES OF UNIVERSITY-AFFILIATED ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTES

Payne Institute for Public Policy at CO School of Mines, in conjunction with Carnegie Mellon University and Rice University, are pleased to host the University Energy Institute Leadership Summit in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. The purpose of this workshop is to explore the synergistic opportunities that are possible with the organization of a national consortium. Both the research and operational leadership at each institute will discuss the role of an organizational framework to advance research and education, funding pursuits, decarbonization strategies, public policy and advocacy, innovation, and partnerships. September 25-26, 2019.

 

ENERGY SPHERES OF INFLUENCE September 13, 2019

ENERGY SPHERES OF INFLUENCE

For several decades, energy security has been defined and pursued in a multilateral world with relatively open markets and technology transfer, where energy relations have become increasingly commodified. But that world may soon disappear—energy relationships might become more political, open trade might give way to friction, and great powers might leverage energy relations or energy technology to gain an edge over each other. September 13, 2019.

DEEP-SEA MINING: THE BASICS August 30, 2019

DEEP-SEA MINING: THE BASICS

The deepest parts of the world’s ocean feature ecosystems found nowhere else on Earth. They provide habitat for multitudes of species, many yet to be named. These vast, lightless regions also possess deposits of valuable minerals in rich concentrations. Deep-sea extraction technologies may soon develop to the point where exploration of seabed minerals can give way to active exploitation. August 30, 2019.

URBAN ELECTRIFICATION: KNOWLEDGE PATHWAY TOWARD AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENDA August 22, 2019

URBAN ELECTRIFICATION: KNOWLEDGE PATHWAY TOWARD AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

This paper outlines a vision for advancing a research and development (R&D) agenda to thoroughly examine the characteristics and relationships among urbanization, electrification, and cities, including the imperative of shifting renewable sources for electricity. It uses a systems approach to trace current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps on diverse and not yet connected elements of this emerging field, while calling for a more active collaboration among engineering, and physical and social sciences in the development of an integrated R&D agenda. August 22, 2019.

CREATING A NATIONAL ELECTRICITY MARKET: INDIA’S MOST IMPORTANT POWER SECTOR REFORM August 19, 2019

CREATING A NATIONAL ELECTRICITY MARKET: INDIA’S MOST IMPORTANT POWER SECTOR REFORM

Important work by Payne Institute Expert Kartikeya. India’s general election is over, and the newly reelected Modi administration has a slew of reforms that are ripe for implementing to shore up India’s teetering power sector. In the first term of the Modi administration, the government focused on providing electricity connections to all houses, aiming to deploy 175 gigawatts (GW) of new renewable energy capacity (mainly from solar and wind) by 2022 and to enact the Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana, also known as UDAY, a reform meant to improve the technical and financial performance of the cash-strapped state-owned utilities (discoms).  August 19, 2019.

WASTING LESS ELECTRICITY BEFORE USE August 12, 2019

WASTING LESS ELECTRICITY BEFORE USE 

Payne Institute Expert Constantine Samaras writes a piece on new research that finds that global inefficiencies in power transmission and distribution infrastructure result in nearly a gigatonne of CO2-equivalent annually. Countries can use this overlooked mitigation opportunity in their transition to a clean power sector. August 12, 2019.

CASE STUDY OF THE ENERGY TRANSITION: PUEBLO, COLORADO August 1, 2019

CASE STUDY OF THE ENERGY TRANSITION: PUEBLO, COLORADO

Pueblo, Colorado is undergoing a major transformation towards becoming a clean energy hub, with lessons for the whole country.  We consider the evolution of the city’s relationship with energy and manufacturing, and conclude with some lessons learned about partnership, government engagement, utility collaboration, and energy transition leadership. August 1, 2019.

LIGHT POLLUTION IN USA AND EUROPE: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY July 27, 2019

LIGHT POLLUTION IN USA AND EUROPE: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY

Payne Institute Earth Observation Group article on light pollution. Light Pollution is a worldwide problem that has a range of adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. Using data from the New World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, VIIRS-recorded radiance and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, we compared light pollution levels, and the light flux to the population size and GDP at the State and County levels in the USA and at Regional (NUTS2) and Province (NUTS3) levels in Europe. July 27, 2019.

RESERVOIR DESIGN AND OPERATION FOR THE FOOD-ENERGY-WATER NEXUS July 17, 2019

RESERVOIR DESIGN AND OPERATION FOR THE FOOD-ENERGY-WATER NEXUS

As populations grow concurrently with changing climates, expanding economies and urbanization, competition for food, energy, and water resources increases. The intersection of these areas, sometimes referred to as the food-energy-water nexus, poses significant challenges. July 17, 2019.

WHAT DOES CLIMATE CHANGE MEAN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? July 15, 2019

WHAT DOES CLIMATE CHANGE MEAN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?

Payne Institute Expert Francesco FusoNerini writes an article, while climate change is likely to hinder progress towards nearly all SDGs, well-planned climate mitigation and adaptation could help unlock the large majority of the SDGs targets. But to do so, climate action needs to be harmonized with other sustainable development policy. July 15, 2019.

A REVIEW OF CLOSE-RANGE AND SCREENING TECHNOLOGIES FOR MITIGATING FUGITIVE METHANE EMISSIONS IN UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS June 26, 2019

A REVIEW OF CLOSE-RANGE AND SCREENING TECHNOLOGIES FOR MITIGATING FUGITIVE METHANE EMISSIONS IN UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS

Fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry are targeted using leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. Until recently, only a limited number of measurement standards have been permitted by most regulators, with emphasis on close-range methods (e.g. Method-21, optical gas imaging). Although close-range methods are essential for source identification, they can be labor-intensive. June 26, 2019.

SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF CARBON POLICY ON U.S. ELECTRICITY MARKETS June 5, 2019

SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF CARBON POLICY ON U.S. ELECTRICITY MARKETS

This paper presents estimates of short run impacts of a carbon price on the electricity industry using a cost-minimizing mathematical model of the U.S. market. Prices of $25 and $50 per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions cause electricity emissions reductions of 17% and 22% from present levels, respectively. June 5, 2019.

INSTREAM FLOW RIGHTS WITHIN THE PRIOR APPROPRIATION DOCTRINE: INSIGHTS FROM COLORADO May 17, 2019

INSTREAM FLOW RIGHTS WITHIN THE PRIOR APPROPRIATION DOCTRINE: INSIGHTS FROM COLORADO

This article rigorously analyzes the case of Colorado, one of the most active programs in the US within the most regimented water right systems. Despite relatively few acquisitions, the junior ISF appropriations have protected numerous miles of streams by 1) deflecting future diversionary rights, 2) requiring protection of any upstream transfers, and 3) reducing upstream withdrawals from existing diversion rights despite ISF’s junior status. May 17, 2019.

A COMPARISON OF LOW CARBON INVESTMENT NEEDS BETWEEN CHINA AND EUROPE IN STRINGENT CLIMATE POLICY SCENARIOS May 13, 2019

A COMPARISON OF LOW CARBON INVESTMENT NEEDS BETWEEN CHINA AND EUROPE IN STRINGENT CLIMATE POLICY SCENARIOS

Payne Fellow Keywan Riahi writes about the radical change in recent global climate governance that calls for China and Europe to ramp up their efforts in leading the world to reach the long-term climate goals. By analyzing the results from the state-of-the-art global integrated assessment model, MESSAGEix-GLOBIOM, this paper aims to understand the future levels of financial investment needed for building and maintaining energy-related infrastructure in the two regions for fulfilling stringent targets consistent with ‘well below 2 °C’. May 13, 2019.

MODEL AND MANAGE THE CHANGING GEOPOLITICS OF ENERGY May 1, 2019

MODEL AND MANAGE THE CHANGING GEOPOLITICS OF ENERGY

We present here four geopolitical scenarios to illustrate how varied the transition could be by 2030 (see ‘Four futures’). To minimize conflict and maximize equity, states’ policy choices over the next decade will be crucial. Researchers and decision-makers should widen their focus to examine the implications of such alternative pathways to decarbonization — issues that go well beyond technology. Smoothing the road will take multilateral agreements, generous funding and cooperation. May 1, 2019.

CROSS-SCALE WATER AND LAND IMPACTS OF LOCAL CLIMATE AND ENERGY POLICY – A LOCAL SWEDISH ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SDG INTERACTIONS March 27, 2019

CROSS-SCALE WATER AND LAND IMPACTS OF LOCAL CLIMATE AND ENERGY POLICY – A LOCAL SWEDISH ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SDG INTERACTIONS

This paper analyses how local energy and climate actions can affect the use of water and land resources locally, nationally and globally. Each of these resource systems is linked to different Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); we also explore related SDG interactions. March 27, 2019.

PLANNING POWER SYSTEMS IN FRAGILE AND CONFLICT-AFFECTED STATES March 18, 2019

PLANNING POWER SYSTEMS IN FRAGILE AND CONFLICT-AFFECTED STATES

Novel approaches are necessary to accelerate the provision of reliable electric power in fragile and conflict-affected countries. Existing approaches to planning power system investment tend to ignore conflict-related risk and its serious consequences. Here, we propose a framework for identifying power system investment strategies in fragile and conflict-affected countries, and apply it to South Sudan. Our results show that investment strategies that explicitly consider the challenges posed by potential conflict may improve the reliability of electricity service over the status-quo approach. Our analysis suggests investing in a diverse mix of supply types in the medium term, and building a power system with redundancies or a higher share of local resources in the long term, to reduce vulnerability to conflict and socio-political fragility. March 18, 2019.

EXTENDING NIGHTTIME COMBUSTION SOURCE DETECTION LIMITS WITH SHORT WAVELENGTH VIIRS DATA February 15, 2019

EXTENDING NIGHTTIME COMBUSTION SOURCE DETECTION LIMITS WITH SHORT WAVELENGTH VIIRS DATA

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) collects low light imaging data at night in five spectral bands. The best known of these is the day/night band (DNB) which uses light intensification for imaging of moonlit clouds in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR). The other four low light imaging bands are in the NIR and short-wave infrared (SWIR), designed for daytime imaging, which continue to collect data at night. VIIRS nightfire (VNF) tests each nighttime pixel for the presence of sub-pixel IR emitters across six spectral bands with two bands each in three spectral ranges: NIR, SWIR, and MWIR. In pixels with detection in two or more bands, Planck curve fitting leads to the calculation of temperature, source area, and radiant heat using physical laws. An analysis of January 2018 global VNF found that inclusion of the NIR and SWIR channels results in a doubling of the VNF pixels with temperature fits over the detection numbers involving the MWIR. The addition of the short wavelength channels extends detection limits to smaller source areas across a broad range of temperatures.  February 15, 2019.

HOW OECD COUNTRIES SUBSIDIZE OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS AND MODELING THE CONSEQUENCES: A REVIEW February 11, 2019

HOW OECD COUNTRIES SUBSIDIZE OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS AND MODELING THE CONSEQUENCES: A REVIEW

In this paper, we focus on oil and gas producer subsidies of OECD countries and their effects; and to categorize the upstream models we have found, compare their main features, as well as recommending best in class models for analyzing the effects of each type of upstream producer subsidy. February 11, 2019.

 

The Payne Institute experts are regional, national, and international leaders in applied research in natural resources, energy, and the environment. Our team is involved in a wide variety of research projects in these fields, and are committed to sharing these results with academic and professional audiences.

 

DISCLAIMER: The opinions, beliefs, and viewpoints expressed are those of the author alone and do not reflect the opinions, beliefs, viewpoints, or official policies of the Payne Institute or Colorado School of Mines.