The Era of Commercial Space Mining Begins
Payne Institute Fellow Alex Gilbert and Morgan Bazilian write a commentary on NASA’s most recent announcement of a ground-breaking solicitation: NASA wants to buy lunar regolith extracted by a private company. In order to spur commercial space resources technology, NASA’s procurement is for the purchase of 50-500 grams of lunar regolith, or rock materials, from the surface of the Moon. September 23, 2020.
Are We Running Out of Natural Gas Storage?
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Greer Gosnell writes a commentary on how the US burned the most natural gas for electricity in its history this summer, but current month-to-month natural gas price spreads suggest we may be running low on natural gas storage. September 23, 2020.
It’s time for states that grew rich from oil, gas and coal to figure out what’s next
Payne Institute Fellow Brad Handler, Matt Henry, and Morgan Bazilian write about the very challenging times for U.S. fossil fuel-producing states, such as Wyoming, Alaska and North Dakota. The COVID-19 economic downturn has reduced energy demand, with uncertain prospects for the extent of its recovery. Meanwhile, rising concern about climate change and the declining cost of renewable energy are precipitating a sharp decline in demand for coal in particular. September 23, 2020.
Space Resources Podcast: Exploring the Final Frontier, with Alex Gilbert
Payne Institute Fellow Alex Gilbert is on the Resources Radio podcast discussing the emerging field of space resources development. Although essential resources likely are plentiful on the moon, Mars, and elsewhere in outer space, we have less certainty over where, precisely, these resources are; what technology is necessary to extract them; and what types of economic development are legally permissible in outer space. Still, Gilbert contends that boundless opportunities exist for commercial exploration outside Earth—and that the United States, with its innovative rocket companies and long-running government space agency, could be the nation that leads the way. September 22, 2020.
11 WAYS TO MEASURE CLEAN GROWTH
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon contributes to this report from the Canadian Institute for Climate Choices that highlights the multiple facets of clean growth by unpacking the connections between economic growth, climate change, and human well-being. We identify 11 data-driven indicators that, together, can guide efforts by governments, businesses, and communities to not only tackle climate change but to do so in a way that achieves sustained growth and the best overall outcomes for people and society as a whole. September 22, 2020.
Colorado School of Mines launches Integrated Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Initiative 9/18/2020
Colorado School of Mines launches Integrated Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Initiative
Led by the Payne Institute for Public Policy and the Mines’ Office of Global Initiatives, the Integrated CCUS initiative will be interdisciplinary across Mines departments. Global interest in carbon capture, utilization and storage is unprecedented as one of the key strategies for addressing climate change. The need for detailed scientific and engineering research, coupled with cross-cutting work on policy, markets and regulation of the technology is equally critical. September 18, 2020.
Cameron Peak Fire in Colorado
Payne Institute Mines student workers Joseph Hall and Elijah Mt. Castle worked with the Earth Observation Group utilized VIIRS Nightfire technology to not only pinpoint fire hotspots, but accurately calculate average temperatures of the flames within the Cameron Peak Fire in Larimer County, Colorado, just outside of Estes Park, and about 60 miles from The Payne Institute for Public Policy headquarters in Golden. September 15, 2020.
BP Releases Energy Outlook
Payne Institute Fellow Michael Cohen, Chief U.S. Economist and Head of Oil Analysis at BP, produced the Energy Outlook that explores the forces shaping the global energy transition out to 2050 and the key uncertainties surrounding that transition. The global energy system is likely to undergo a fundamental restructuring in order to decarbonize, which will create challenges and opportunities for the industry. Three main scenarios – Rapid, Net Zero, and Business-as-usual – provide a range of possible outcomes to understand the range of uncertainties ahead. September 14, 2020.
Why Canada’s geothermal industry is finally gaining ground
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon contributes to this article about how the heat from below the Earth’s surface has provided a reliable source of electricity for decades in many countries — but not Canada. Now, several projects underway in western provinces could herald a new era for this untapped resource and offer job opportunities for former oil and gas workers. September 12, 2020.
Innovation to Drive Water Security in the Arab Region
Payne Institute Fellow Jamal Saghir writes about how the Arab world is now the world’s driest region, with several countries being among the world’s most water scarce, where per capita renewable water availability is already less than 500 cubic meters per year. This is the level set by the World Health Organization for severe scarcity at which water becomes a hurdle to economic growth and beyond which water scarcity becomes a key concern in people’s lives and begins to affect the development process. September 11, 2020.
Can Tesla help solve one of the thorniest ethical problems with electric vehicles?
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon contributes to this article about how Tesla wants to fix one of the most problematic steps in its electric vehicle supply chain. September 10, 2020.
Beware of climate delay, masquerading as climate action
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon writes an opinion piece about the slow-walking action on climate has almost the same impact as outright denial. As political leaders face growing calls for climate action, we must be careful to understand where investments in technological development are, in fact, a form of climate delay, masquerading as action. September 10, 2020.
Mines researcher contributing to $4M DOE project for energy-efficient steelmaking
Payne Institute Faculty Fellow Sridhar Seetharaman has been awarded a $4 million dollar grant to prove the economic viability of increased renewal energy usage in steel production. Researchers believe the de-carbonization of the steel industry can be achieved by connecting ironmaking to renewable electric power through electrolytically produced hydrogen. September 9, 2020.
3.5 BILLION PEOPLE LACK RELIABLE POWER
Payne Fellow Todd Moss, Morgan Bazilian, Jacob Kincer, and John Ayaburi write about the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 7 that commits the world to ending energy poverty by “ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all by 2030.” The dominant measurement of progress against SDG7 is the access rate, which measures the number of people with basic household electricity. There is no accepted international indicator for reliability. A new approach will help to fill this gap. September 8, 2020.
The Dimming of Lights in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group research on satellite surveys of the cumulative radiant emissions from electric lighting across China reveals a large radiance decline in lighting from December 2019 to February 2020—the peak of the lockdown established to suppress the spread of COVID-19 infections. To illustrate the changes, an analysis was also conducted on a reference set from a year prior to the pandemic. September 7, 2020.
Some Colorado temps are increasing at twice the global average, fueling wildfires, scientists say 9/4/2020
Some Colorado temps are increasing at twice the global average, fueling wildfires, scientists say
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group and Director Christopher Elvidge is featured in this article about the growing threat of forest fires in Colorado, using insights from their VIIRS satellite images. September 4, 2020.
Country Spotlight: Gas Flaring in India
The Payne Institute looks at the gas flaring in India. According to the IEA, India is the fourth largest refiner of oil (behind the US, Russia, and China), and the third largest importer of crude oil and LNG (behind China and the US), though is outranked by 24 other countries on oil production, with declining trends. September 3, 2020.
Bouncing Forward Sustainably: Pathways to a post-COVID World Sustainable Energy
Payne Institute Director Morgan Bazilian was a co-author on the Second Consultative Science Platform of the IIASA-ISC “Bouncing Forward Sustainably: Pathways to a post-COVID-19 World” that aims to harness the transformative power of crisis to imagine a more sustainable world. The authors gathered with a focus on science -to deliberate on the following overarching questions: How should COVID-19 and related stimulus and/or recovery packages be directed to build back better to create the maximum impact on the transition to sustainable development; and how can a decarbonized, decentralized, and digitalized energy system make our society more resilient? How can the ability of science, policy and governance systems be enhanced to rapidly respond to unforeseen shocks? August 31, 2020.
Energy 360° Podcast – Getting to Reliable Electricity Access
Payne Institute Advisory Board Member Sarah Ladislaw and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) host Morgan Bazilian for a podcast to discuss energy access globally and some of the metrics used to measure access. The Payne Institute recently released ‘Measuring “Reasonably Reliable” Access to Electricity Services,’ which provides an in-depth view of the gaps in global electricity access and how quality of access matters as much as quantity. August 31, 2020.
The oil-sands fundamentals are dire and stark – and Canada shouldn’t spend to revive a dying dream 8/29/2020
The oil-sands fundamentals are dire and stark – and Canada shouldn’t spend to revive a dying dream
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon, David Keith, and Ed Whittingham write an opinion piece on Alberta’s potential move to build a greener industry with a major public investment in decarbonizing oil production. There is widespread support for this approach. After all, many of Alberta’s oil producers are in the high-cost, high-carbon quadrant, and for them to follow the world in moving to low-carbon energy, the public needs to help with the Herculean adjustment effort. August 29, 2020.
Hurricane Laura from Space
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group has been viewing the power outages following Hurricane Laura. One of the consequences of many natural disasters are power outages, which result in losses in electric lighting that can be detected with low light imaging data. This paper looks at the nighttime light images of the impacted areas. August 28, 2020.
Mines Energy Future Podcast – Dr. Robert Braun discusses Hybrid Stationary Power Systems and Fuel Cells 8/28/2020
Mines Energy Future Podcast – Dr. Robert Braun discusses Hybrid Stationary Power Systems and Fuel Cells
Mines Energy Future podcast featuring Faculty Fellow Dr. Robert Braun, Rowlinson Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Lead of the Advanced Energy Systems Group, Colorado School of Mines, discussing Hybrid Stationary Power Systems and Fuel Cells. August 28, 2020.
Alberta’s deficit is set to reach historic levels. A collapse in oil revenue is a big reason why 8/27/2020
ALBERTA’S DEFICIT IS SET TO REACH HISTORIC LEVELS. A COLLAPSE IN OIL REVENUE IS A BIG REASON WHY
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon contributes to this article about how resource revenue is expected to fall to levels not seen since the 1970s as Jason Kenney’s UCP government announces deficit projections $16.8 billion higher than previously forecast. August 27, 2020.
HISTORICAL LICK OBSERVATORY SURROUNDED BY WILDFIRE
Payne Institute Mines student workers Elijah Mt. Castle and Mitch Burcham worked with the Earth Observation Group using VIIRS NightFire technology to view the Lick Observatory operated by the University of California. The observatory is slowly being encroached upon by a surrounding wildfire in the Mt. Hamilton area of California. August 24, 2020.
Energy vs. Climate Podcast
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon, David Keith, and Ed Whittingham break down the trade-offs and hard truths of the energy transition in Alberta, Canada, and beyond in a series of podcasts. August 21, 2020.
Crisis Breeds Change: COVID and Heatwaves Spur Citizens to Environmental Action
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Greer Gosnell writes about the brutal heatwaves in California and the rolling blackouts. Crisis—along with a stark break in routine—appeared to refocus people’s attention on their everyday actions, and a bigger picture. August 21, 2020.
Can Distributed Nuclear Power Address Energy Resilience and Energy Poverty?
Payne Institute Fellow Alex Gilbert and Morgan Bazilian write about the three major energy challenges that are driving national and international energy decision making. First, the need to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Second, despite recent progress, many communities in both developed and developing countries remain in energy poverty or lack reliable, low-cost energy services. Finally, due to climate-amplified natural disasters and other threats, the reliability and resilience of energy systems is an increasing public concern. Existing distributed energy resources (DERs), especially solar photovoltaics and battery storage, are attempting to address each of these issues. However, more and faster progress is needed. Recent innovations in advanced nuclear designs could make nuclear power a distributed energy solution for the first time. As a dispatchable and resilient energy source, distributed nuclear could complement and accelerate the ongoing distributed energy revolution. August 19, 2020.
Measuring “Reasonably Reliable” access to electricity services
Payne Fellow Todd Moss, Morgan Bazilian, John Ayaburi, and Jacob Kincer write that while the electricity access rate is regularly measured in most countries, there are no routinely tracked metrics that measure reliability. This paper presents a new approach that: (1) aggregates all available country data on reliability; (2) defines a minimum threshold metric for ‘reasonable reliability’; and (3) estimates the number of people without ‘reasonably reliable’ electricity services. We estimate the number of people without access to reliable electricity is approximately 3.5 billion. This new metric provides a more granular view of the enormous energy access gap globally, and insights for future investment and policy decisions. August 19, 2020.
California power outages underscore challenge of maintaining reliability during climate change, the energy transition 8/19/2020
California power outages underscore challenge of maintaining reliability during climate change, the energy transition
Payne Fellow Alex Gilbert and Director Morgan Bazilian write an opinion piece about a severe heat wave that brought high electric prices and rolling electricity outages to California last week, with as many as two million customers suffering a loss of power. Already, some are trying to politicize the blackouts, blaming renewables and California’s aggressive energy transition. However, the situation is considerably more complex than this simplistic narrative. August 19, 2020.
Natural Gas Transportation Price Regulation and the Dash for Gas
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Greer Gosnell and Payne Faculty Fellow Ian Lange write about the large reduction in natural gas prices due to horizontal fracturing that has led to an unprecedented expansion in natural gas use for electricity generation. Another innovation that helped facilitate the expansion of natural gas electricity generation is the deregulation of natural gas pipeline transportation. Previous to June 2008, the price for transacting space in natural gas pipelines was set by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). FERC Order 712 allowed transactions under one year in duration, generally known as the secondary market, to transact at market prices. This regulatory innovation should facilitate natural gas power plants in procuring natural gas and lead to expanded generation. August 18, 2020.
GRIZZLY CREEK AND PINE GULCH FOREST FIRES
Payne Institute Mines student workers Elijah Mt. Castle and Mitch Burcham worked with the Earth Observation Group using VIIRS NightFire technology to view two extremely hazardous fires in Colorado. Our team utilized VIIRS NightFire technology to not only pinpoint fire hotspots but accurately calculate average temperatures of the flames within an area. These fires are occurring along I-70: one in Grizzly Creek near Glenwood Springs, and one in Pine Gulch near Palisade, Colorado. August 17, 2020.
MINES ENERGY FUTURE PODCAST – DR. NICOLE SMITH DISCUSSES EXTRACTING RESOURCES AND MAXIMIZING COMMUNAL BENEFITS
Mines Energy Future podcast featuring Dr. Nicole Smith, Assistant Professor, Mining Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines discussing extracting resources and maximizing communal benefits. August 17, 2020.
WE SHOULD LOOK BEYOND THE SAVINGS IN THE HERITAGE FUND
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon writes an opinion piece on the recent discussion of Alberta’s current state and the missed opportunity to save past resource wealth has focused on the balance of the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund and the contrast to Norway’s trillion-dollar account. But as commentators have rightly pointed out, there are important differences between the two regions that call into question the use of Norway’s bank account as a yardstick for the past or plan for the future. August 15, 2020.
Market failures and willingness-to-accept the smart energy transition: Experimental evidence from the UK 8/13/2020
MARKET FAILURES AND WILLINGNESS-TO-ACCEPT THE SMART ENERGY TRANSITION: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM THE UK
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Greer Gosnell and Daire McCoy have a new working paper that discusses why there is a need to facilitate the sustainable energy transition, and how governments and innovators are encouraging households to adopt smart technologies that allow for increased flexibility in energy grids. The UK’s ambitious smart metering policy has indisputably failed to achieve its objective of equipping all dwellings with smart meters. This research uses a novel experiment to elicit the willingness-to-accept of 2,400 nationally representative UK households for smart meter installation. August 13, 2020.
FALL IN US GAS FLARING GIVES CAUSE FOR OPTIMISM
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Jordy Lee, Director Morgan Bazilian, and Jamie Webster write about how in the past 12 months, gas flaring in the US has actually declined by 70 per cent, according to numbers provided by the Earth Observation Group.This decline was not driven by policy, Covid-19, or suddenly improved operations, but rather as the result of investors demanding greater capital discipline from a sector that had earned a reputation for prioritising growth over all other concerns. These demands have reduced activity, particularly from smaller operators that have often found it financially difficult to spend capital to improve environmental outcomes. August 11, 2020.
Published on End Poverty in South Asia India’s electricity consumption data shows economic impact of COVID-19 8/11/2020
INDIA’S ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION DATA SHOWS ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COVID-19
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group research provides the data for this piece on how COVID-19 has disrupted economic activity. Quantifying this disruption is challenging. Traditional national account estimates, the official government measure for economic activity, are not very helpful for that. To monitor economic activity in times like these, one needs instead measures that are available at higher frequency and higher spatial granularity- for example at the district level. In India, the amount of electricity used (measured as total consumption) and the intensity of lights in the evening (measured as lights per area) are useful proxy indicators. Electricity consumption is measured daily at the state-level and changes reveal information about the economy. August 11, 2020.
OIL WELL EXPLOSION IN INDIA
Payne Institute Earth Observation Group Willie Helms reports that an ongoing fire in India exploded on July 22, 2020, injuring three people. Over the last two months, Oil India Limited (OIL) has suspended operations at well number 5 of the Baghjan oil field, located in the Tinsukia district of Assam, India. Problems originally started on May 27, a blowout occurred, allowing gas to spew uncontrollably from the well. Fueled by the gas, a large fire broke out on June 9, killing two firefighters. August 5, 2020.
CAUCASUS ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THREAT, AS AZERBAIJAN-ARMENIAN CRISIS CONTINUES?
Payne Institute Fellow Cyril Widdershoven writes about the decades old Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict is heating up again, as both sides are putting their armed forces on alert. The unexpected escalation, which could be even going into a next phase, due to increased Turkish-Azerbaijani cooperation the last days, is not only putting the Caucasus region on full alert, but also could be threatening major regional and international oil and gas transport infrastructure at risk. August 5, 2020.
ON OILSANDS, ALBERTA IS STILL TRYING TO FIX YESTERDAY’S PROBLEMS
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon opinion piece regarding the decision by French energy giant Total highlights need to focus on today’s real challenges, and their reasons for the recently announced writedown of Canadian oilsands assets and the decision to halt all future investments in new capacity. While the decision was framed within Total’s broader carbon neutrality goal, the fundamental challenge cited was not the carbon footprint of production from the oilsands, but rather that in a world that is responding to the threat of climate change, oil production will decline, leaving the expansion of higher cost, larger, and longer lifetime Alberta resources uncompetitive. August 5, 2020.
Is the Texas Tesla factory a tipping point? Linking mining to electric vehicle manufacturing will bring jobs to South 8/5/2020
IS THE TEXAS TESLA FACTORY A TIPPING POINT? LINKING MINING TO ELECTRIC VEHICLE MANUFACTURING WILL BRING JOBS TO THE SOUTH
Payne Institute Fellow Emily Hersh and Jesse Edmondson write an opinion piece about Tesla’s announcement to build a new manufacturing hub in Austin for the production of the Cybertruck, Semi and the Model Y is the latest and greatest in what has been a growing trend to bring the electric vehicle supply chain to the southern United States. This represents of billions of dollars in investment that will create thousands of jobs. States traditionally dominated by conservative politics have an opportunity to embrace the future of American green energy. August 5, 2020.
Spatially variable taxation and resource extraction: The impact of state oil taxes on drilling in the US 8/5/2020
SPATIALLY VARIABLE TAXATION AND RESOURCE EXTRACTION: THE IMPACT OF STATE OIL TAXES ON DRILLING IN THE US
Payne Institute Faculty Fellow Peter Maniloff, Jason Brown, and Dale Manning estimate the responsiveness of nonrenewable resource firms to taxes on output using spatially explicit data from the oil sector in the United States. Using a model of resource firm capital allocation over space, we show that responses to spatially-varying taxes differ from responses to equivalent changes in the common output price. A larger response to tax rates occurs because the tax change only affects the returns to drilling in a single state, whereas a price change affects both the returns to drilling in a state and the opportunity cost of not drilling in other states. August 5, 2020.
CHINESE FISHING NEAR NORTH KOREA IS A SYMPTOM OF A BIGGER PROBLEM
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group research provides the data for a comprehensive piece on China’s distant water fleet, and the robust scale of illegal fishing in the waters off the coast of North Korea by Chinese fishermen. July 31, 2020.
Sumit Agarwal named 2020 AVS Fellow
Payne Institute Faculty Fellow Sumit Agarwal has been named a 2020 AWS Fellow. Fellowship recognizes AVS members who have made sustained and outstanding technical contributions throughout their careers to research, engineering, technical advancement, academic education or technical management in the areas of basic science, technology development and commercialization of materials, interfaces and processing. July 24, 2020.
CRITICAL MINERALS DON’T BURN UP – WHY THE ENERGY SECURITY PLAYBOOK NEEDS A RE-WRITE
Payne Institute Senior Research Associate Sara Hastings-Simon and Director Morgan Bazilian explain why the issues surrounding critical mineral security differ from traditional energy security. The required response should avoid delaying the transition to a low carbon future, whilst using the time available to focus on building robust supply chains and creating economic opportunity both in the U.S. and internationally. July 23, 2020.
IRAQ LOOKING TO DEVELOP ITS NATURAL GAS RESOURCE
Payne Institute Earth Observation Group Willie Helms reviews VIIRS satellite imagery to see that since 2018, the United States has been putting pressure on Iraq to move toward energy independence. Iraq currently imports the majority of its natural gas from Iran, which is then burned for electricity. However, as a bi-product of its oil production, Iraq already flares the second most natural gas in the world as of 2018 per data from NOAA with assistance from VIIRS Nightfire (VNF). July 23, 2020.
OGCI launches $1M partnership with Payne Institute to develop new web platform to map gas flaring 7/23/2020
OGCI LAUNCHES $1M PARTNERSHIP WITH PAYNE INSTITUTE TO DEVELOP NEW PLATFORM TO MAP GAS FLARING
The Oil and Gas Climate Initiative (OGCI) has today announced a technical and financial sponsorship commitment of nearly $1M USD to the Payne Institute for Public Policy (PIPP) at Colorado School of Mines, to develop a transparent web platform to support real-time mapping and tracking of global gas flaring data. The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group will provide the platform for the research via their VIIRS satellite. Launched in 2012, the VIIRS satellite uses advanced sensors to detect the light emitted by gas flares as infrared emissions at global facilities that find and produce oil and natural gas. The programme has been developed under the umbrella of the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR), a World Bank-led organization. The Global Gas Flaring Explorer platform will deliver improved monitoring, visibility and transparency in flaring volume data, and will be publicly available in early 2022. July 23, 2020.
ILLUMINATING DARK FISHING FLEETS IN NORTH KOREA
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group research on nighttime lights (VIIRS) provides the data for this article on Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing that threatens resource sustainability and equity. A major challenge with such activity is that most fishing vessels do not broadcast their positions and are “dark” in public monitoring systems. Combining four satellite technologies, we identify widespread illegal fishing by dark fleets in the waters between the Koreas, Japan, and Russia. July 22, 2020.
NEW TECHNOLOGY UNVEILS MASSIVE ILLEGAL FISHING BY DARK FLEETS IN NORTH KOREA, WHAT NEXT?
The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group research on nighttime lights (VIIRS) was featured in this article about unprecedented fishing activity in North Korea. International collaboration reveals widespread illegal fishing in North Korean waters across 2017 and 2018. Hundreds of large, industrial vessels originating from China likely violated United Nations (U.N.) sanctions and caught almost half a billion dollars worth of Pacific flying squid. July 22, 2020.
MINES ENERGY FUTURE PODCAST – DR. M.V. RAMANA DISCUSSES SMALL MODULAR REACTORS: HISTORY AND FUTURE POTENTIAL
Mines Energy Future podcast featuring Dr. M.V. Ramana, Professor and Simons Chair in Disarmament, Global and Human Security, Director, Liu Institute for Global Issues, School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia discussing nuclear energy, and small modular reactors (SMR). July 21, 2020.
The Payne Institute experts are regional, national, and international leaders in applied research in natural resources, energy, and the environment. Our team is involved in a wide variety of research projects in these fields, and are committed to sharing these results with academic and professional audiences.
DISCLAIMER: The opinions, beliefs, and viewpoints expressed are those of the author alone and do not reflect the opinions, beliefs, viewpoints, or official policies of the Payne Institute or Colorado School of Mines.