VIIRS Nightfire (VNF)

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About VIIRS Nightfire (VNF)

VIIRS is unique in the recording of near-infrared and short-wave infrared data at night. This includes the M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands. Nighttime M11 data became available in December 2017. With sunlight eliminated, combustion sources are readily detected, particularly in the M10 and M11 bands. The recorded signal can be fully attributed to the combustion source. In our analysis we use data from all of the VIIRS bands collecting data at night. The data from M10, M11, M12 and M13 bands are used to detect combustion sources. To eliminate noise, confirmation is sought in the Day/Night Band (DNB), M7 and M8. Plank curve fitting is performed to estimate the temperature of background and hot sources.

VIIRS Info from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Nightly Data

Currently VNF is produced with data from VIIRS on board of two satellites, i.e. NPP and NOAA-20. The output is divided by UTC dates with rolling updates as soon as satellite images are processed. Data are provided in CSV and KMZ format.


Coming soon…

Global Gas Flaring

EOG had been monitoring global gas flaring since DMSP era. Check out our annual report compiled with VNF here. Older dataset compiled with DMSP can be found here.


  • C. Elvidge, M. Zhizhin, F.-C. Hsu, and K. Baugh, “VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night,” Remote Sensing, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 4423–4449, Sep. 2013.
  • C. Elvidge, M. Zhizhin, K. Baugh, F.-C. Hsu, and T. Ghosh, “Methods for Global Survey of Natural Gas Flaring from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Data,” Energies, vol. 9, p. 14, 2016.
  • C. Elvidge, M. Zhizhin, K. Baugh, F. Hsu, and T. Ghosh, “Extending Nighttime Combustion Source Detection Limits with Short Wavelength VIIRS Data,” Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 395, Feb. 2019.


Download Daily VIIRS Nightfire


When using the data please credit the product generation to the Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, with proper citations as below. 

Elvidge, Christopher D., Mikhail Zhizhin, Feng-Chi Hsu, and Kimberly E. Baugh. “VIIRS nightfire: Satellite pyrometry at night.” Remote Sensing 5, no. 9 (2013): 4423-4449.

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